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    2003 BMW 325CI 2.5L EFI DOHC 6cyl

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    Ford Ranger/Explorer/Mountaineer 1991-1999

    Evaporative Emission Control System

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    OPERATION



    Fuel vapors trapped in the sealed fuel tank are vented through the orifice vapor valve assembly in the top of the tank. The vapors leave the valve assembly through a single vapor line and continue to the carbon canister for storage until they are purged to the engine for burning.

    Purging the carbon canister removes the fuel vapor stored in the carbon canister. The fuel vapor is purged via a CANister Purge (CANP) solenoid or vacuum controlled purge valve. Purging occurs when the engine is at normal operating temperature and off idle.

    The evaporative emission control system consists of the following components: fuel vapor (charcoal) canister, orificed vapor valve, fuel vapor CANister Purge (CANP) solenoid, pressure/vacuum relief fuel tank filler cap, as well as, the fuel tank and fuel tank filler pipe, vapor tube and fuel vapor hoses.

    Fuel Vapor (Charcoal) Canister

    The fuel vapor canister is referred to as the evaporative emissions canister on 1441-44 models.

    The fuel vapors from the fuel tank are stored in the fuel vapor canister until the vehicle is operated, at which time, the vapors will purge from the canister into the engine for consumption. The fuel vapor canister contains activated carbon, which absorbs the fuel vapor. The canister is located in the engine compartment or along the frame rail.

    Orificed Vapor Valve

    This component is also known as the evaporative emission valve on 1441-44 models.

    Fuel vapor in the fuel tank is vented to the carbon canister through the vapor valve assembly. The valve is mounted in a rubber grommet at a central location in the upper surface of the fuel tank. A vapor space between the fuel level and the tank upper surface is combined with a small orifice and float shut-off valve in the vapor valve assembly to prevent liquid fuel from passing to the carbon canister. The vapor space also allows for thermal expansion of the fuel.

    CANP Solenoid

    The CANP solenoid is inline with the carbon canister and controls the flow of fuel vapors out of the canister. It is normally closed. When the engine is shut OFF , the vapors from the fuel tank flow into the canister. After the engine is started, the solenoid is engaged and opens, purging the vapors into the engine. With the solenoid open, vapors from the fuel tank are routed directly into the engine.

    Pressure/Vacuum Relief Fuel Tank Filler Cap

    The fuel cap contains an integral pressure and vacuum relief valve. The vacuum valve acts to allow air into the fuel tank to replace the fuel as it is used, while preventing vapors from escaping the tank through the atmosphere. The vacuum relief valve opens after a vacuum of -0.21 psi (1.2 kPa). The pressure valve acts as a backup pressure relief valve in the event the normal venting system is overcome by excessive generation of internal pressure or restriction of the normal venting system. The pressure relief is 2 psi (14 kPa). Fill cap damage or contamination that stops the pressure vacuum valve from working may result in deformation of the fuel tank.

    COMPONENT TESTING



    See Figures 1 through 6



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    Fig. Fig. 1: Evaporative canister and hose routing on the 2.3L and 2.1L engine



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    Fig. Fig. 2: Evaporative canister and hose routing on the 3.0L engine-2.4L engine similar



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    Fig. Fig. 3: Evaporative canister and hose routing on the 4.0L engine



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    Fig. Fig. 4: EVAP canister mounting for the 1.0L engine



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    Fig. Fig. 5: Fuel vapor management valve mounting-1.0L engine shown, others similar



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    Fig. Fig. 6: EVAP hose routing on the 1.0L engine

    Fuel Vapor Canister

    Generally, the only testing done to the vapor canister is a visual inspection. Look the canister over and replace it with a new one if there is any evidence of cracks or other damage.

    Do not try to check the fuel saturation of the canister by weighing it or by the intensity of the fuel odor from the canister. These methods are unreliable and inhaling gasoline fumes can be toxic.

    CANP Solenoid
    1441-1444 MODELS
    1. Remove the CANP solenoid.
    2.  
    3. Using an external voltage source, apply 4-14 DC volts to the CANP solenoid electrical terminals. Then, use a hand-held vacuum pump and apply 16 in. Hg (13 kPa) vacuum to the manifold side nipple of the CANP solenoid.
      1. If the solenoid opens and allows air to freely pass through it, the solenoid is working properly.
      2.  
      3. If the solenoid does not allow air to pass freely while energized, replace the solenoid with a new one.
      4.  

    4.  

    1441-44 MODELS
    1. Remove the CANP solenoid.
    2.  
    3. Measure the resistance between the two CANP terminals.
      1. If the resistance is between 30-40 ohms, proceed to the Step 3.
      2.  
      3. If the resistance is not between 30-40 ohms, replace the CANP solenoid.
      4.  

    4.  
    5. Attach a hand-held vacuum pump to the intake manifold vacuum side of the CANP solenoid, then apply 16 in. Hg (13 kPa) of vacuum to the solenoid.
      1. If the solenoid will not hold vacuum for at least 20 seconds replace it with a new one.
      2.  
      3. If the solenoid holds vacuum, proceed to Step 4. Keep the vacuum applied to the solenoid.
      4.  

    6.  
    7. Using an external voltage source, apply 4-14 DC volts to the CANP solenoid electrical terminals.
      1. If the solenoid opens and the vacuum drops, the solenoid is working properly.
      2.  
      3. If the solenoid does not open and the vacuum remains, replace the solenoid with a new one.
      4.  

    8.  

    REMOVAL & INSTALLATION



    Fuel Vapor Canister

    The fuel vapor canister is referred to as the evaporative emissions canister on 1441-44 models.

    1. Disconnect the vapor hoses from the canister.
    2.  
    3. Remove the mounting screws, then remove the canister.
    4.  

    To install:
    1. Position the canister in place, then install the mounting screws.
    2.  
    3. Attach all of the vapor hoses to the canister.
    4.  

    Fuel Vapor Valve

    This component is also known as the evaporative emission valve on 1441-44 models.

    1. Disconnect the negative battery cable.
    2.  
    3. Relieve the fuel system pressure.
    4.  
    5. Remove the fuel tank.
    6.  
    7. Remove the fuel vapor valve from the fuel tank.
    8.  

    To install:
    1. Install the fuel vapor valve into the fuel tank.
    2.  
    3. Install the fuel tank in the vehicle.
    4.  
    5. Connect the negative battery cable.
    6.  

    CANP Solenoid
    1. Disconnect the vapor hoses from the CANP solenoid.
    2.  
    3. Unplug the electrical connector from the CANP solenoid.
    4.  
    5. Remove the purge solenoid valve from the vehicle.
    6.  

    To install:
    1. Install the CANP solenoid, then attach the engine wiring harness connector to the solenoid.
    2.  
    3. Connect the vapor hoses to the solenoid.
    4.  

    Pressure/Vacuum Relief Fuel Tank Filler Cap
    1. Unscrew the fuel filler cap. The cap has a pre-vent feature that allows the tank to vent for the first 3 / 4 turn before unthreading.
    2.  
    3. Remove the screw retaining the fuel cap tether and remove the fuel cap.
    4.  

    To install:
    1. Position the end of the tether against its mounting boss, then install and tighten the tether screw.
    2.  
    3. Thread the filler cap into the fuel tank filler tube, making sure to turn it clockwise until the ratchet mechanism gives off 3 or more loud clicks.
    4.  

     
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