How the Starting and Charging System works
Starting and Charging Parts at AutoZone
If you’re having trouble starting your car, it could be the battery, starter, alternator, or another component of your starting and charging system that is responsible. It’s important to inspect each one of them before you begin replacing parts. Whether you choose to diagnose your parts yourself or bring it to us, AutoZone is here to help you find out what’s wrong, so you can do the job right the first time.
It’s always a good idea to get a repair manual for your specific vehicle. Pop the hood and familiarize yourself with your starting and charging system. Learn about each component, what each component does and how to inspect for damages and other problems.
How Vehicle Starting and Charging Works
The battery supplies power to your vehicle
The starting battery converts chemical energy into electrical energy. The three essential parts for this conversion are the anode, the cathode, and the electrolyte.
- The anode is the negatively-charged side of the battery
- The cathode is the positively-charged side
- The electrolyte is a buffer that separates the anode and cathode
Chemical reactions inside of the battery cause electrons to build up in the anode. Like with magnets, the similarly charged particles repel one another, but in a battery the electrolyte blocks these particles from merely switching sides by moving over to the opposite side.
If your battery is more than 4 years old, you should get it tested so you won’t be caught off-guard by a dead battery. You can do it yourself using a voltmeter or battery tester, or bring it to AutoZone to be tested for free.
Battery cables and terminals carry current from the battery
Battery cables connect the battery’s terminals to the vehicle. One end of each cable is connected to either the negative or positive terminal.
- The other end of the negative cable is often connected to the engine or somewhere on the vehicle’s frame
- The positive cable’s other end is typically connected to the starter or a fuse box
Because the electrolyte keeps the charged particles from crossing the battery, electrical current moves from the battery, through the cables, and into the vehicle.
Corrosion and loose connections can keep your cables from working the way they should. Be sure to inspect your cables for looseness or corrosion from time to time. If you have a problem, it’s easy to tighten the cables or to remove corrosion with a wire brush.
Relays, fuses, and the starter receive electrical current
Whether or not current travels directly to your starter depends on whether your vehicle has a starter fuse (If you don’t know, check the fuses section of your owner’s manual).
When you turn the ignition, your vehicle’s electrical system transfers some of your car battery’s electrical power to the starter motor. This electric motor turns, allowing the fuel-air mixture to flow into the engine cylinders so the spark plugs can begin combustion.
Your vehicle’s relays and fuses regulate current in the electrical systems.
- A relay is basically a switch that allows small currents to control accessories that would require heavy switches and wiring. Relays reduce the amount of wiring needed by having larger contact areas that can handle large amounts of current
- Fuses protect your vehicle’s electronic devices and wiring. If something like, say, your radio tries to draw too much current, the radio’s fuse will blow, cutting off the current’s path to the radio. This prevents the excess current from damaging the radio
After reaching the relays and fuses, current continues to the vehicle’s various electrical systems.
The starter turns the engine
When the starter engages, the solenoid moves the starter pinion into engagement with the engine flywheel ring gear. The pinion rotates, and rotates the engine flywheel ring gear in turn. The turning of the engine allows the fuel air-mixture to enter into the engine cylinders for combustion, starting the engine.
You can test your starter using an alternator/battery tester or voltmeter. A clicking noise when you turn the key is a good indicator of low battery voltage or that your starter is bad. Visually inspect your starter for signs of the problem. If the starter is soaked with oil contamination and requires replacement, be sure the oil leak is repaired to prevent damage to the replacement starter.
The accessory belt or serpentine belt drives the alternator
Once the engine is turning, rotational force from the crankshaft turns the belt pulley. The belt transfers this rotational force to other systems, like the power steering pump, the water pump, and most importantly for this article: the alternator.
The alternator recharges the battery
The alternator is responsible for maintaining the proper voltage for your car’s battery. To understand how this works, it may be helpful to think of a wind-up flash light or a windmill, in which electricity is generated from rotational force. The alternator works similarly, except it is turned by the belt rather than a hand or the wind. The two components responsible for generating electricity are the rotor and the stator:
- The rotor features magnetized finger poles that rotate surrounding the wire field winding. Each finger pole is a different length to produce alternating north and south poles for the winding
- The stator is just enough larger that the rotor can spin without touching the stator walls
The spinning magnetized poles generate current in the winding, and this current provides the power that charges your battery.
Test your alternator using an alternator/battery tester or voltmeter. Ensure the drive belt is in good condition and does not slip on the alternator pulley. A dead battery, one that won’t stay charged, or headlamps and interior lights that appear dim can indicate that your alternator is possibly bad. Visually inspect your alternator for signs of the problem. If the alternator is replaced, be sure the battery is fully charged before starting the engine. This will prevent overload and potential damage to the replacement alternator. If the drive belt shows signs of wear, replace it to ensure the alternator will perform properly. If equipped with an automatic belt tensioner, inspect it for wear and binding/sticking. If it does not move smoothly it should be replaced along with the belt.
Learn More About Starting and Charging Parts
Find out how individual components of this system function, and how to work on them.
Other Parts You Can Check:
Fuses and fusible links protect the circuits in the charging system. A fusible link is a fuse imbedded in a wire.
- Inspect fuses for breaks or gaps in the wire filament
- Test fusible links using a voltmeter
Dashboard warning lights, gauges and LED readouts can provide clues to the source of your problem
- Make sure warning lights go off after your car has started
- Make sure the voltage gauge shows a reading of 12 volts when the car is off and rises to 14 volts after it’s started
- Pay attention to your Check Engine Light or Message Center Light; They can also indicate a problem
If you’re working on the system, stop by AutoZone for free battery, starter, or alternator testing.*
*Battery test and charge available only in-store in California. Starter and Alternator testing service not available in California.