Carburetor vs Fuel Injection: Which Option is Better Today?
Engines need three things in order to start up at all, regardless of efficiency: ignition, air, and fuel. When it comes to fuel, two types of systems are used to deliver the highly combustible fluid. Carburetion, which is known as the process of mixing vaporized flammable hydrocarbon with air resulting in an explosive mixture, is the first and the older process. The second is fuel injection, where fuel is delivered directly into the engine.
The two systems serve the same function but operate very different from each other. What are the differences, and which option stands out as better in today’s automotive world? Here’s what you need to know in the battle of carburetor vs fuel injection.
How do carburetors work?
Carburetors are devices that mechanically meter the amount of fuel and air that enter the engine. It works on what’s known as Bernoulli’s Principle that infers that liquids will always move from a high-pressure area to a lower-pressure area. As the throttle is pressed, a rod or cable to the carburetor opens a throttle valve below a narrowing opening called a venturi. As air passes through the venturi, the pressure drops, and the lower pressure draws gas through a channel from a fuel intake at the venturi. Essentially, once the engine is running, it continuously sucks gas into it.
There have been various carburetor designs over the years to finetune the process or maximize on power or efficiency, but the concept is relatively unchanged. It’s a fuel system that is often preferred for its simplicity for that reason. By the mid-1990s, another design had become commonplace, all but eliminating carburetion from new vehicles in the auto industry.
How does a fuel injection system work?
The system that overtook carburetor engines was fuel injection. Initially developed as early as the 1880s, it wasn’t feasible to implement until it could be controlled more reliably, and that occurred in the 1950s. Adoption was rather slow, though, and it wasn’t until the nineties that it became the most popular method.
Fuel injectors are, at the most basic level, valves that control the flow of fuel into the engine. At first, a fuel injected carburetor, also known as an EFI carburetor, was used so a more accurate air-fuel mixture could be implemented, catering to emissions standards. Then, multi-port fuel injection took over, employing a fuel injector for each cylinder where atomized fuel sprayed directly at the intake valve. Air then moved separately to the intake where it would mix with the misted fuel.
Fuel injection systems are computer controlled. It depends on “seeing” an accurate volume of air entering the engine as well as the precise timing in the engine when the air-fuel mixture will ignite. The amount of fuel to pass through the valve is determined by the length of time the injector is open, known as the pulse width. It’s a variable controlled by an engine management system, whether it’s known as an engine control unit (ECU), a powertrain control module (PCM), or otherwise.
Pros and cons for both carburetion and fuel injection
As with anything, there are benefits and concerns with both carbureted systems as well as fuel injection. Whether you’re looking to upgrade a classic or muscle car or simply decide on what type of vehicle to purchase, here’s what you should consider.
Pros of carburetion
- Carburetors are comparatively simple in design.
- It’s possible to manually tune and adjust a carburetor.
- Diagnosis is straightforward for fuel system concerns.
- For a classic car, carburetion allows for owners to work on their own vehicles.
- Changing a carb can easily enhance performance without other requirements
Cons of a carbureted system
- If the climate or elevation changes, carburetors don’t adjust autonomously.
- Carbs are dependable but not extremely precise in air-fuel delivery.
- They require service and repair at regular intervals.
- Carburetors can’t typically meet modern fuel efficiency or emissions standards.
Pros of fuel injection
- Fuel injection systems don’t require adjustments since they’re computer controlled.
- They are designed to meet or exceed emissions regulations.
- Fuel delivery is extremely accurate, even accounting for elevation and temperature changes.
- They can deliver more power with less fuel consumption in many circumstances.
- Engine start-ups are simpler and more reliable.
Cons of a fuel injection system
- A fuel injection system is much more complex and requires a professional to diagnose problems.
- Factory-equipped systems cannot be adjusted to improve performance or efficiency.
- Generally, it’s a more expensive system to install than a carburetor.
- Injectors are finicky with contaminants and require servicing and cleaning occasionally.
What should you choose?
Which is better: carb or fuel injection? That’s a tough question to answer without context. For someone working on a classic car or performing a restoration, a carb is still preferred in most cases due to its simplicity. There’s no need for computers or programming, and a screwdriver is all it takes to tune up. But fuel injection systems are often available as an upgrade that can help you get the most power from your engine, plus enhanced reliability is a great side effect. Fuel injection comes at a premium cost.
If you’re purchasing a vehicle, odds are you won’t come across anything from the past 25 years that is equipped with a carburetor anymore. It’ll be equipped with fuel injection, and there’s no easy way – or reason to – retrofit a carb onto the engine.
Whatever you decide on, one thing remains true. Get fuel injector and carburetor replacement parts at AutoZone. Fix or replace your fuel system with parts from top brands available quickly with options like Free Next-Day Delivery or Same-Day In-Store or Curbside Pickup. Need help finding parts or assistance on installation? AutoZone associates are on hand to provide Trustworthy Advice.